The Engaged Learning Online Workbook
This workbook offers you the opportunity to reflect on your own educational approach and to imagine new ideas for creating engaged learning opportunities for students.  Review the questions below, and respond to as many as you can.  You may print out your own personal copy once you have completed the workbook.
1.  Students’ journey to self-authorship (personal and intellectual maturity) does not occur automatically. Think about a student with whom you have worked who demonstrated a high degree of maturity and ability. What was his or her journey through college? What experiences helped him or her develop this degree of maturity and ability? Record your thoughts in the space below.
2.  Recall the student you described above. What key capacities did this student possess that allowed him or her to be personally and professionally successful? How do this students’ capacities compare to those represented in self-authorship—that is, the awareness that knowledge is contextual, development of an internal belief system, and the capacity for authentic, interdependent relationships?
3.  Many students who enter college are dependent upon authority figures or external value or belief systems for answers. Within your specific context or with regard to your specific field/area, what “external formulas” do students tend to follow? When and how have you seen students let go of such formulas? What has been the result?
4.  To help students move away from external formulas, educators need to focus on “generation” over “emanation.” Generation puts the students in the role of scholar or active learner, while emanation reinforces the educator as the expert and the student as passive learner. In the space below, first provide an example of an emanative experience related to higher education with which you are familiar. Then, in the next paragraph, provide an example of a generative experience related to higher education with which you are familiar. Which experience do you believe results in better learning? Why and how?
5.  Consider the imaginary course or out-of-class examples. What prompted the educator to make changes to his or her practice? Why have you or might you consider using a generative versus an emanative approach? Are there contexts in which one approach is more appropriate than another? What do you see as the benefits and drawbacks in making these changes in your own practice?
6.  Review the table below that summarizes typical characteristics of learners in each stage of development. Consider students in your educational context. What are some of their prevailing characteristics at each stage of development?

External Formulas: Knowledge viewed as certain; reliance on authorities (e.g., professors, textbooks, the media) as source of knowledge; externally defined value system and identity; act in relationships to acquire approval

Crossroads: Evolving awareness of multiple perspectives and uncertainty; evolving awareness of own values and identity and of limitations of dependent relationships

Self-authorship: Awareness of knowledge as contextual; development of internal belief system and sense of self; capacity to engage in authentic, interdependent relationships

7.  The table below summarizes some of the common challenges learners face at various stages of development. Review the table. Then, reflect on students in your educational context. What are some of the key challenges they face at each stage of their undergraduate journey?

External Formulas: Recognizing that multiple perspectives exist; realizing that authorities are not all-knowing; awareness of one’s own role in identifying values; seeing the limitations of dependent relationships

Crossroads: Choosing among multiple perspectives based on internal beliefs and values; integrating internal beliefs and values into a sense of identity; including one’s own needs in relationships

Self-authorship: Acting consistently based on one’s internal belief system; refining one’s sense of self as ability to reflect on one’s shortcomings increases; negotiating the complexities of interdependent relationships

8.  When working with students in the introductory or “external formulas” stage, educators can promote students’ growth by:
  • Cultivating a safe climate for honest exchange
  • Offering ongoing opportunities for students to write or communicate ideas
  • Building on students’ experiences, and connect academic learning to their experiences
  • Providing multiple valid perspectives on topics addressed; ask students to determine which perspective(s) fit best with their own beliefs and values and why
  • Helping students to understand, analyze and critique experts and authorities
  • Using dialogic evaluation/reflection, and raise additional questions for students to consider
  • Reflecting on their own teaching process, and consider how they can more fully share authority and expertise with students
Consider the best practices in your specific field/area for students who are moving away from external formulas (i.e., who are in the introductory stage). In what ways do these practices currently provide an appropriate balance of challenge and support? In what ways can you refine these practices or create new ones to maximize the balance of challenge and support?

9.  Educators can aid the development of students who are moving through the intermediate or “crossroads” stage by:
  • Providing structured opportunities for students to make key decisions
  • Helping students practice authentic scholarly and creative discovery tasks and methods
  • Offering ongoing opportunities for students to write or communicate; provide ongoing feedback
  • Helping students define and act on their own ideas and values within the context of multiple perspectives
  • Helping students understand the limitations and benefits of, and make connections among, different knowledge domains (disciplines, cultures, fields, professions)
  • Teaching students to function productively in teams and to reflect on effective collaboration
  • Assisting students in processing their problems and generating their own solutions
Consider the best practices in your specific field/area for students who are moving through the crossroads (i.e., who are in the intermediate stage). In what ways do these practices currently provide an appropriate balance of challenge and support? In what ways can you refine these practices or create new ones to maximize the balance of challenge and support?

10.  Students who are moving into “self-authorship” benefit from educators who:
  • Empower students individually or in teams to plan, design, and implement their own discovery-oriented projects with ongoing feedback and critical self-reflection
  • Help students consistently base their decisions and constructions of knowledge upon their internal belief system
  • Help students integrate aspects of their identity and recognize the multifaceted identities of others
  • Cultivate climates akin to graduate seminars where students and faculty engage in respectful dialogue to explore differences of opinion
  • Ask students to assist educators in developing criteria by which to assess the effectiveness of their work
  • Provide opportunities for students to reflect on their undergraduate experience and apply lessons learned to career goals
  • Share the characteristics of their own internally defined belief system and identity
Consider the best practices in your specific field/area for students who are moving into self-authorship (i.e., who are in the advanced stage). In what ways do these practices currently provide an appropriate balance of challenge and support? In what ways can you refine these practices or create new ones to maximize the balance of challenge and support?